Submitted Date 02/06/2019

Craig DeLancey’s, “Introduction to Logic” aroused several main ideas and conclusions revolving around the topic of truth. For instance, as human beings we become liberated through the powers of fundamental reasoning. As a species, we are only as free as the amount of intellectual knowledge that we possess. Clearly and concisely, DeLancey drives this point home with various illustrative examples within the capabilities of our complex usage of linguistics.

Symbolic logic, although simple allows humans to express declarative knowledge via concepts known as truth values. Much of this entire text revolves around the primitive functions of truth through various types of structural language components. Additionally, the importance of propositional and sententional sentences relies upon the fact that they are recursive and allow for their implied rules to be applied repeatedly to the product.

Differing forms of sentence structure rely upon the type of sentence or syntax. A syntax informs the audience of the shape of an expression, while the semantics symbolize the meaning and relation of an expression. Within our language exists variable metalanguages and particular object language. Whether the sentence becomes a trivial and atomic form depends upon its contingency. Ultimately, the type of sentence formulation derives from its truth functional connectives. A conditional constituent sentence necessitates a consequent which is the result of the conditional. The object of language depends upon particular propositional logic which holds an input and output for truth values.

The sound validity of an argument figures to be based upon the premises which means to show a true conclusion. A conditional statement rings true if the antecedent and consequent are also true. DeLancey proves his argument with the use of deductive reasoning and statistical generalizations. One foolproof method by which hypothetical arguments prove themselves unfalsifiable is the scientific method which allows for testable predictions to be made.

An argument manifests truth in a trifold manner. First, the greater predictive power that allows for more hypothesis to successfully predict truth, the better the argument. Second, hypothesis’ suggest that productivity validates greater new directions for research. Third, if two hypothesis’ predict equal results and productivity the one that coheres with proven theories substantiates preferrable results (per the Coherence with Existing theory.) Finally, simplicity verifies that if two hypotheses prove equally predictive, productive and coherent with existing theories the most simple hypothesis becomes preferred. Logic plays a role within this outcome due to the fact that a refuted hypothesis remains unjustifiable if the consequence prediction is false.

The statistical generalization of probability confirms that if a population sample of the premise is true then the conclusion must also be true (syntactic proof method.) Inference rules determine the ability of an individual to develop new outcomes to an argument via added sentences. Another factor that plays a role within this realm is the modus ponens which derives from repeated applications to the rule. A direct proof becomes justified by the application of the inference rules. From premises, the inference rule that preserves validity confirms that we arrive at a particular conclusion. Our goal as rhetoricians is to make syntax mirror semantics. Thus, we become able to say something about the world through the manipulation of symbols. Symbols underlie the deeper possibilities of our language.

The modus tollens states that through double negation we may introduce two new rules and lump them together under one name. Additionally, conjunctions convey a sense of surprise or failure of expectations. For example, there is no single word alternative to the word, “and.” Therefore, there are many ways to imply the usage of conjunctions and adjunctions.

The operation and implementation of complex sentences derive from different types of connectives. The function of a semantic defines the truth value of a connective through either atomic or negation sentences. A tautology, which is a sentence that must be true can be generally considered the fault of style by reiterating the same sentence in two separate manners.



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